Joseph Noel

Professor and Director

Jack H. Skirball Center for Chemical Biology and Proteomics

Arthur and Julie Woodrow Chair

Salk Institute for Biological Studies - Publications

all Publications


Burke, J.R., La Clair, J.J., Philippe, R.N., Pabis, A., Corbella, M., Jez, J.M., Cortina, G.A., Kaltenbach, M., Bowman, M.E., Louie, G.V., Woods, K.B., Nelson, A.T., Tawfik, D.S., Kamerlin, S.C.L., Noel, J.P. Bifunctional Substrate Activation via an Arginine Residue Drives Catalysis in Chalcone Isomerases (2019) ACS Catalysis. 9(9):8388−8396. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.9b01926

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Thomas, S.T., Louie, G.V., Lubin, J.W., Lundblad, V., Noel, J.P. Substrate Specificity and Engineering of Mevalonate 5-Phosphate Decarboxylase. (2019) ACS Chemical Biology. 14(8):1767-1779. DOI: 10.1021/acschembio.9b00322

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Seto, Y., Yasui, R., Kameoka, H., Tamiru, M., Cao, M., Terauchi, R., Sakurada, A., Hirano, R., Kisugi, T., Hanada, A., Umehara, M., Seo, E., Akiyama, K., Burke, J., Takeda-Kamiya, N., Li, W., Hirano, Y., Hakoshima, T., Mashiguchi, K., Noel, J.P., Kyozuka, J., Yamaguchi, S. Strigolactone perception and deactivation by a hydrolase receptor DWARF14. (2019) Nature Communications. 10(1):191. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-08124-7

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Henry, L.K., Thomas, S.T., Widhalm, J.R., Lynch, J.H., Davis, T.C., Kessler, S.A., Bohlmann, J., Noel, J.P., Dudareva, N. Contribution of isopentenyl phosphate to plant terpenoid metabolism. (2018) Nature Plants. DOI: 10.1038/s41477-018-0220-z

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Kaltenbach, M., Burke, J.R., Dindo, M., Pabis, A., Munsberg, F.S., Rabin, A., Kamerlin, S.C.L., Noel, J.P., Tawfik, D.S. Evolution of chalcone isomerase from a noncatalytic ancestor. (2018) Nature Chemical Biology. DOI: 10.1038/s41589-018-0042-3

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Vickery, C.R., Cardenas, J., Bowman, M., Burkart, M.D., Da Silva, N.A., Noel, J.P. A coupled in vitro/in vivo approach for engineering a heterologous Type III PKS to enhance polyketide biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (2018) Biotechnology and Bioengineering. DOI: 10.1002/bit.26564

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Stewart, C., Woods, K., Macias, G., Allan, A.C., Hellens, R.P., Noel, J.P. Molecular architectures of benzoic acid-specific type III polyketide synthases. (2017) Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural biology. 73(Pt 12):1007-1019. DOI: 10.1107/S2059798317016618

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Wu, C.C., Baiga, T.J., Downes, M., La Clair, J.J., Atkins, A.R., Richard, S.B., Fan, W., Stockley-Noel, T.A., Bowman, M.E., Noel, J.P., Evans, R.M. Structural basis for specific ligation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ. (2017) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 114(13):E2563-E2570. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1621513114

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Mindrebo, J.T., Nartey, C.M., Seto, Y., Burkart, M.D., Noel, J.P. Unveiling the functional diversity of the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily in the plant kingdom. (2016) Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 41:233-246. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbi.2016.08.005

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Levsh, O., Chiang, Y.C., Tung, C.F., Noel, J.P., Wang, Y., Weng, J.K. Dynamic Conformational States Dictate Selectivity toward the Native Substrate in a Substrate-Permissive Acyltransferase. (2016) Biochemistry. 55(45):6314-6326. DOI: 10.1021/acs.biochem.6b00887

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Weng, J.K., Ye, M., Li, B., Noel, J.P. Co-evolution of Hormone Metabolism and Signaling Networks Expands Plant Adaptive Plasticity. (2016) Cell. 166(4):881-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.06.027

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Koo, H.J., Vickery, C.R., Xu, Y., Louie, G.V., O'Maille, P.E., Bowman, M., Nartey, C.M., Burkart, M.D., Noel, J.P. Biosynthetic potential of sesquiterpene synthases: product profiles of Egyptian Henbane premnaspirodiene synthase and related mutants. (2016) Journal of Antibiotics. 69(7):524-33. DOI: 10.1038/ja.2016.68

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El Gamal, A., Agarwal, V., Diethelm, S., Rahman, I., Schorn, M.A., Sneed, J.M., Louie, G.V., Whalen, K.E., Mincer, T.J., Noel, J.P., Paul, V.J., Moore, B.S. Biosynthesis of coral settlement cue tetrabromopyrrole in marine bacteria by a uniquely adapted brominase-thioesterase enzyme pair. (2016) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 113(14):3797-802. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1519695113

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Vickery, C.R., La Clair, J.J., Burkart, M.D., Noel, J.P. Harvesting the biosynthetic machineries that cultivate a variety of indispensable plant natural products. (2016) Current Opinion in Chemical Biology. 31:66-73. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2016.01.008

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Zheng, Z., Guo, Y., Novák, O., Chen, W., Ljung, K., Noel, J.P., Chory, J. Local auxin metabolism regulates environment-induced hypocotyl elongation. (2016) Nature Plants. 2:16025. DOI: 10.1038/nplants.2016.25

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Ma, D., Li, X., Guo, Y., Chu, J., Fang, S., Yan, C., Noel, J.P., Liu, H. Cryptochrome 1 interacts with PIF4 to regulate high temperature-mediated hypocotyl elongation in response to blue light. (2016) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 113(1):224-9. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1511437113

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Kersten, R.D., Diedrich, J.K., Yates, J.R., Noel, J.P. Mechanism-Based Post-Translational Modification and Inactivation in Terpene Synthases. (2015) ACS Chem. Biol. 10(11):2501-11. DOI: 10.1021/acschembio.5b00539

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Henry, L.K., Gutensohn, M., Thomas, S.T., Noel, J.P., Dudareva, N. Orthologs of the archaeal isopentenyl phosphate kinase regulate terpenoid production in plants. (2015) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112(32):10050-5. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1504798112

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Rising, K.A., Crenshaw, C.M., Koo, H.J., Subramanian, T., Chehade, K.A., Starks, C., Allen, K.D., Andres, D.A., Spielmann, H.P., Noel, J.P., Chappell, J. Formation of a Novel Macrocyclic Alkaloid from the Unnatural Farnesyl Diphosphate Analogue Anilinogeranyl Diphosphate by 5-Epi-Aristolochene Synthase. (2015) ACS Chem. Biol. 10(7):1729-36. DOI: 10.1021/acschembio.5b00145

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Pan, H., Zhou, R., Louie, G.V., Mühlemann, J.K., Bomati, E.K., Bowman, M.E., Dudareva, N., Dixon, R.A., Noel, J.P., Wang, X. Structural studies of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase, key enzymes of monolignol biosynthesis. (2014) Plant Cell. 26(9):3709-27. DOI: 10.1105/tpc.114.127399

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Vickery, C.R., Kosa, N.M., Casavant, E.P., Duan, S., Noel, J.P., Burkart, M.D. Structure, biochemistry, and inhibition of essential 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferases from two species of Mycobacteria. (2014) ACS Chem. Biol. 9(9):1939-44. DOI: 10.1021/cb500263p

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Procko, C., Crenshaw, C.M., Ljung, K., Noel, J.P., Chory, J. Cotyledon-Generated Auxin Is Required for Shade-Induced Hypocotyl Growth in Brassica rapa. (2014) Plant Physiology. 165(3):1285-1301. DOI: 10.1104/pp.114.241844

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Bomati, E.K., Haley, J.E., Noel, J.P., Deheyn, D.D. Spectral and structural comparison between bright and dim green fluorescent proteins in Amphioxus. (2014) Scientific Reports. 4:5469. DOI: 10.1038/srep05469

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Hoppmann, C., Lacey, V.K., Louie, G.V., Wei, J., Noel, J.P., Wang, L. Genetically encoding photoswitchable click amino acids in Escherichia coli and mammalian cells. (2014) Angewandte Chemie. 53(15):3932-6. DOI: 10.1002/anie.201400001

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Beld, J., Sonnenschein, E.C., Vickery, C.R., Noel, J.P., Burkart, M.D. The phosphopantetheinyl transferases: catalysis of a post-translational modification crucial for life. (2014) Nat Prod Rep. 31(1):61-108. DOI: 10.1039/c3np70054b

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Schorn, M., Zettler, J., Noel, J.P., Dorrestein, P.C., Moore, B.S., Kaysser, L. Genetic basis for the biosynthesis of the pharmaceutically important class of epoxyketone proteasome inhibitors. (2014) ACS Chem. Biol. 9(1):301-9. DOI: 10.1021/cb400699p

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Dellas, N., Thomas, S.T., Manning, G., Noel, J.P. Discovery of a metabolic alternative to the classical mevalonate pathway. (2013) Elife. 2:e00672. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.00672

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Teufel, R., Miyanaga, A., Michaudel, Q., Stull, F., Louie, G., Noel, J.P., Baran, P.S., Palfey, B., Moore, B.S. Flavin-mediated dual oxidation controls an enzymatic Favorskii-type rearrangement. (2013) Nature. 503(7477):552-556. DOI: 10.1038/nature12643

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Lacey, V.K., Louie, G.V., Noel, J.P., Wang, L. Expanding the library and substrate diversity of the pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase to incorporate unnatural amino acids containing conjugated rings. (2013) Chembiochem. 14(16):2100-5. DOI: 10.1002/cbic.201300400

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Stewart, C., Vickery, C.R., Burkart, M.D., Noel, J.P. Confluence of structural and chemical biology: plant polyketide synthases as biocatalysts for a bio-based future. (2013) Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 16(3):365-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.pbi.2013.02.004

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Weng, J.K., Noel, J.P. Chemodiversity in Selaginella: a reference system for parallel and convergent metabolic evolution in terrestrial plants. (2013) Frontiers in Plant Science. 4:119. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2013.00119

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Guo, Y., Zheng, Z., La Clair, J.J., Chory, J., Noel, J.P. Smoke-derived karrikin perception by the α/β-hydrolase KAI2 from Arabidopsis. (2013) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 110(20):8284-9. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1306265110

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Zheng, Z., Guo, Y., Novák, O., Dai, X., Zhao, Y., Ljung, K., Noel, J.P., Chory, J. Coordination of auxin and ethylene biosynthesis by the aminotransferase VAS1. (2013) Nature Chemical Biology. 9(4):244-6. DOI: 10.1038/nchembio.1178

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Elleder, D., Baiga, T.J., Russell, R.L., Naughton, J.A., Hughes, S.H., Noel, J.P., Young, J.A. Identification of a 3-aminoimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. (2012) Virology Journal. 9:305. DOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-9-305

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Liscombe, D.K., Louie, G.V., Noel, J.P. Architectures, mechanisms and molecular evolution of natural product methyltransferases. (2012) Nat Prod Rep. 29(10):1238-50. DOI: 10.1039/c2np20029e

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Zhang, M., Wang, X.J., Chen, X., Bowman, M.E., Luo, Y., Noel, J.P., Ellington, A.D., Etzkorn, F.A., Zhang, Y. Structural and kinetic analysis of prolyl-isomerization/phosphorylation cross-talk in the CTD code. (2012) ACS Chem. Biol. 7(8):1462-70. DOI: 10.1021/cb3000887

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Weng, J.K., Philippe, R.N., Noel, J.P. The rise of chemodiversity in plants. (2012) Science. 336(6089):1667-70. DOI: 10.1126/science.1217411

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Ngaki, M.N., Louie, G.V., Philippe, R.N., Manning, G., Pojer, F., Bowman, M.E., Li, L., Larsen, E., Wurtele, E.S., Noel, J.P. Evolution of the chalcone-isomerase fold from fatty-acid binding to stereospecific catalysis. (2012) Nature. 485(7399):530-3. DOI: 10.1038/nature11009

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Auldridge, M.E., Guo, Y., Austin, M.B., Ramsey, J., Fridman, E., Pichersky, E., Noel, J.P. Emergent decarboxylase activity and attenuation of α/β-hydrolase activity during the evolution of methylketone biosynthesis in tomato. (2012) Plant Cell. 24(4):1596-607. DOI: 10.1105/tpc.111.093997

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Weng, J.K., Noel, J.P. Structure-function analyses of plant type III polyketide synthases. (2012) Meth. Enzymol. 515:317-35. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-394290-6.00014-8

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Shen, B., Xiang, Z., Miller, B., Louie, G., Wang, W., Noel, J.P., Gage, F.H., Wang, L. Genetically encoding unnatural amino acids in neural stem cells and optically reporting voltage-sensitive domain changes in differentiated neurons. (2011) Stem Cells. 29(8):1231-40. DOI: 10.1002/stem.679

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Hess, B.A., Smentek, L., Noel, J.P., O'Maille, P.E. Physical constraints on sesquiterpene diversity arising from cyclization of the eudesm-5-yl carbocation. (2011) Journal of the American Chemical Society. 133(32):12632-41. DOI: 10.1021/ja203342p

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Takimoto, J.K., Dellas, N., Noel, J.P., Wang, L. Stereochemical basis for engineered pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase and the efficient in vivo incorporation of structurally divergent non-native amino acids. (2011) ACS Chem. Biol. 6(7):733-43. DOI: 10.1021/cb200057a

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Hothorn, M., Belkhadir, Y., Dreux, M., Dabi, T., Noel, J.P., Wilson, I.A., Chory, J. Structural basis of steroid hormone perception by the receptor kinase BRI1. (2011) Nature. 474(7352):467-71. DOI: 10.1038/nature10153

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Louie, G.V., Bowman, M.E., Tu, Y., Mouradov, A., Spangenberg, G., Noel, J.P. Structure-function analyses of a caffeic acid O-methyltransferase from perennial ryegrass reveal the molecular basis for substrate preference. (2010) Plant Cell. 22(12):4114-27. DOI: 10.1105/tpc.110.077578

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Noel, J.P. Chemical biology: Synthetic metabolism goes green. (2010) Nature. 468(7322):380-1. DOI: 10.1038/468380a


Tu, Y., Rochfort, S., Liu, Z., Ran, Y., Griffith, M., Badenhorst, P., Louie, G.V., Bowman, M.E., Smith, K.F., Noel, J.P., Mouradov, A., Spangenberg, G. Functional analyses of caffeic acid O-Methyltransferase and Cinnamoyl-CoA-reductase genes from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). (2010) Plant Cell. 22(10):3357-73. DOI: 10.1105/tpc.109.072827

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Yu, G., Nguyen, T.T., Guo, Y., Schauvinhold, I., Auldridge, M.E., Bhuiyan, N., Ben-Israel, I., Iijima, Y., Fridman, E., Noel, J.P., Pichersky, E. Enzymatic functions of wild tomato methylketone synthases 1 and 2. (2010) Plant Physiology. 154(1):67-77. DOI: 10.1104/pp.110.157073

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Dellas, N., Noel, J.P. Mutation of archaeal isopentenyl phosphate kinase highlights mechanism and guides phosphorylation of additional isoprenoid monophosphates. (2010) ACS Chem. Biol. 5(6):589-601. DOI: 10.1021/cb1000313

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Zhang, M., Liu, J., Kim, Y., Dixon, J.E., Pfaff, S.L., Gill, G.N., Noel, J.P., Zhang, Y. Structural and functional analysis of the phosphoryl transfer reaction mediated by the human small C-terminal domain phosphatase, Scp1. (2010) Protein Science. 19(5):974-86. DOI: 10.1002/pro.375

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Noel, J.P., Dellas, N., Faraldos, J.A., Zhao, M., Hess, B.A., Smentek, L., Coates, R.M., O'Maille, P.E. Structural elucidation of cisoid and transoid cyclization pathways of a sesquiterpene synthase using 2-fluorofarnesyl diphosphates. (2010) ACS Chem. Biol. 5(4):377-92. DOI: 10.1021/cb900295g

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Faraldos, J.A., O'Maille, P.E., Dellas, N., Noel, J.P., Coates, R.M. Bisabolyl-derived sesquiterpenes from tobacco 5-epi-aristolochene synthase-catalyzed cyclization of (2Z,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate. (2010) Journal of the American Chemical Society. 132(12):4281-9. DOI: 10.1021/ja909886q

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Ben-Israel, I., Yu, G., Austin, M.B., Bhuiyan, N., Auldridge, M., Nguyen, T., Schauvinhold, I., Noel, J.P., Pichersky, E., Fridman, E. Multiple biochemical and morphological factors underlie the production of methylketones in tomato trichomes. (2009) Plant Physiology. 151(4):1952-64. DOI: 10.1104/pp.109.146415

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Lear, M.J., Simon, O., Foley, T.L., Burkart, M.D., Baiga, T.J., Noel, J.P., DiPasquale, A.G., Rheingold, A.L., La Clair, J.J. Laetirobin from the parasitic growth of Laetiporus sulphureus on Robinia pseudoacacia. (2009) J. Nat. Prod. 72(11):1980-7. DOI: 10.1021/np9002838

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Koeduka, T., Orlova, I., Baiga, T.J., Noel, J.P., Dudareva, N., Pichersky, E. The lack of floral synthesis and emission of isoeugenol in Petunia axillaris subsp. parodii is due to a mutation in the isoeugenol synthase gene. (2009) Plant Journal. 58(6):961-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2009.03834.x

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Koeduka, T., Baiga, T.J., Noel, J.P., Pichersky, E. Biosynthesis of t-anethole in anise: characterization of t-anol/isoeugenol synthase and an O-methyltransferase specific for a C7-C8 propenyl side chain. (2009) Plant Physiology. 149(1):384-94. DOI: 10.1104/pp.108.128066

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O'Maille, P.E., Malone, A., Dellas, N., Andes Hess, B., Smentek, L., Sheehan, I., Greenhagen, B.T., Chappell, J., Manning, G., Noel, J.P. Quantitative exploration of the catalytic landscape separating divergent plant sesquiterpene synthases. (2008) Nature Chemical Biology. 4(10):617-23. DOI: 10.1038/nchembio.113

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Savaldi-Goldstein, S., Baiga, T.J., Pojer, F., Dabi, T., Butterfield, C., Parry, G., Santner, A., Dharmasiri, N., Tao, Y., Estelle, M., Noel, J.P., Chory, J. New auxin analogs with growth-promoting effects in intact plants reveal a chemical strategy to improve hormone delivery. (2008) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 105(39):15190-5. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0806324105

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Eustáquio, A.S., Härle, J., Noel, J.P., Moore, B.S. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine hydrolase (adenosine-forming), a conserved bacterial and archaeal protein related to SAM-dependent halogenases. (2008) Chembiochem. 9(14):2215-9. DOI: 10.1002/cbic.200800341


Kumano, T., Richard, S.B., Noel, J.P., Nishiyama, M., Kuzuyama, T. Chemoenzymatic syntheses of prenylated aromatic small molecules using Streptomyces prenyltransferases with relaxed substrate specificities. (2008) Bioorg. Med. Chem. 16(17):8117-26. DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2008.07.052

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Baiga, T.J., Guo, H., Xing, Y., O'Doherty, G.A., Dillin, A., Austin, M.B., Noel, J.P., La Clair, J.J. Metabolite induction of Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larvae arises via transport in the pharynx. (2008) ACS Chemical Biology. 3(5):294-304. DOI: 10.1021/cb700269e

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Tello, M., Kuzuyama, T., Heide, L., Noel, J.P., Richard, S.B. The ABBA family of aromatic prenyltransferases: broadening natural product diversity. (2008) Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 65(10):1459-63. DOI: 10.1007/s00018-008-7579-3


Koeduka, T., Louie, G.V., Orlova, I., Kish, C.M., Ibdah, M., Wilkerson, C.G., Bowman, M.E., Baiga, T.J., Noel, J.P., Dudareva, N., Pichersky, E. The multiple phenylpropene synthases in both Clarkia breweri and Petunia hybrida represent two distinct protein lineages. (2008) Plant Journal. 54(3):362-74. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03412.x

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Tao, Y., Ferrer, J.L., Ljung, K., Pojer, F., Hong, F., Long, J.A., Li, L., Moreno, J.E., Bowman, M.E., Ivans, L.J., Cheng, Y., Lim, J., Zhao, Y., Ballaré, C.L., Sandberg, G., Noel, J.P., Chory, J. Rapid synthesis of auxin via a new tryptophan-dependent pathway is required for shade avoidance in plants. (2008) Cell. 133(1):164-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2008.01.049

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Austin, M.B., O'Maille, P.E., Noel, J.P. Evolving biosynthetic tangos negotiate mechanistic landscapes. (2008) Nature Chemical Biology. 4(4):217-22. DOI: 10.1038/nchembio0408-217

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Ferrer, J.L., Austin, M.B., Stewart, C., Noel, J.P. Structure and function of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. (2008) Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 46(3):356-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2007.12.009

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Zhao, N., Ferrer, J.L., Ross, J., Guan, J., Yang, Y., Pichersky, E., Noel, J.P., Chen, F. Structural, biochemical, and phylogenetic analyses suggest that indole-3-acetic acid methyltransferase is an evolutionarily ancient member of the SABATH family. (2008) Plant Physiology. 146(2):455-67. DOI: 10.1104/pp.107.110049

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Eustáquio, A.S., Pojer, F., Noel, J.P., Moore, B.S. Discovery and characterization of a marine bacterial SAM-dependent chlorinase. (2008) Nature Chemical Biology. 4(1):69-74. DOI: 10.1038/nchembio.2007.56

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Noel, J.P. Digging for answers, smelling a hint of success and tasting triumph. (2007) Nature Chemical Biology. 3(11):690-1. DOI: 10.1038/nchembio1107-690


Louie, G.V., Baiga, T.J., Bowman, M.E., Koeduka, T., Taylor, J.H., Spassova, S.M., Pichersky, E., Noel, J.P. Structure and reaction mechanism of basil eugenol synthase. (2007) PLOS One. 2(10):e993. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000993

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Faraldos, J.A., Zhao, Y., O'Maille, P.E., Noel, J.P., Coates, R.M. Interception of the enzymatic conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to 5-epi-aristolochene by using a fluoro substrate analogue: 1-fluorogermacrene A from (2E,6Z)-6-fluorofarnesyl diphosphate. (2007) Chembiochem. 8(15):1826-33. DOI: 10.1002/cbic.200700398

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Takahashi, S., Yeo, Y.S., Zhao, Y., O'Maille, P.E., Greenhagen, B.T., Noel, J.P., Coates, R.M., Chappell, J. Functional characterization of premnaspirodiene oxygenase, a cytochrome P450 catalyzing regio- and stereo-specific hydroxylations of diverse sesquiterpene substrates. (2007) Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282(43):31744-54. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M703378200

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Wang, W., Takimoto, J.K., Louie, G.V., Baiga, T.J., Noel, J.P., Lee, K.F., Slesinger, P.A., Wang, L. Genetically encoding unnatural amino acids for cellular and neuronal studies. (2007) Nature Neuroscience. 10(8):1063-72. DOI: 10.1038/nn1932

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Haagen, Y., Unsöld, I., Westrich, L., Gust, B., Richard, S.B., Noel, J.P., Heide, L. A soluble, magnesium-independent prenyltransferase catalyzes reverse and regular C-prenylations and O-prenylations of aromatic substrates. (2007) FEBS Letters. 581(16):2889-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2007.05.031

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Zhang, Y., Daum, S., Wildemann, D., Zhou, X.Z., Verdecia, M.A., Bowman, M.E., Lücke, C., Hunter, T., Lu, K.P., Fischer, G., Noel, J.P. Structural basis for high-affinity peptide inhibition of human Pin1. (2007) ACS Chemical Biology. 2(5):320-8. DOI: 10.1021/cb7000044

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Takahashi, S., Yeo, Y., Greenhagen, B.T., McMullin, T., Song, L., Maurina-Brunker, J., Rosson, R., Noel, J.P., Chappell, J. Metabolic engineering of sesquiterpene metabolism in yeast. (2007) Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 97(1):170-81. DOI: 10.1002/bit.21216

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Moffitt, M.C., Louie, G.V., Bowman, M.E., Pence, J., Noel, J.P., Moore, B.S. Discovery of two cyanobacterial phenylalanine ammonia lyases: kinetic and structural characterization. (2007) Biochemistry. 46(4):1004-12. DOI: 10.1021/bi061774g

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Varbanova, M., Yamaguchi, S., Yang, Y., McKelvey, K., Hanada, A., Borochov, R., Yu, F., Jikumaru, Y., Ross, J., Cortes, D., Ma, C.J., Noel, J.P., Mander, L., Shulaev, V., Kamiya, Y., Rodermel, S., Weiss, D., Pichersky, E. Methylation of gibberellins by Arabidopsis GAMT1 and GAMT2. (2007) Plant Cell. 19(1):32-45. DOI: 10.1105/tpc.106.044602

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Louie, G.V., Bowman, M.E., Moffitt, M.C., Baiga, T.J., Moore, B.S., Noel, J.P. Structural determinants and modulation of substrate specificity in phenylalanine-tyrosine ammonia-lyases. (2006) Chemistry & Biology. 13(12):1327-38. DOI: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2006.11.011

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Liu, C.J., Deavours, B.E., Richard, S.B., Ferrer, J.L., Blount, J.W., Huhman, D., Dixon, R.A., Noel, J.P. Structural basis for dual functionality of isoflavonoid O-methyltransferases in the evolution of plant defense responses. (2006) Plant Cell. 18(12):3656-69. DOI: 10.1105/tpc.106.041376

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Zhang, Y., Kim, Y., Genoud, N., Gao, J., Kelly, J.W., Pfaff, S.L., Gill, G.N., Dixon, J.E., Noel, J.P. Determinants for dephosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain by Scp1. (2006) Molecular Cell. 24(5):759-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2006.10.027

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Ferrer, J.L., Dupuy, J., Borel, F., Jacquamet, L., Noel, J.P., Dulic, V. Structural basis for the modulation of CDK-dependent/independent activity of cyclin D1. (2006) Cell Cycle. 5(23):2760-8. DOI: 10.4161/cc.5.23.3506

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Song, L., Barona-Gomez, F., Corre, C., Xiang, L., Udwary, D.W., Austin, M.B., Noel, J.P., Moore, B.S., Challis, G.L. Type III polyketide synthase beta-ketoacyl-ACP starter unit and ethylmalonyl-CoA extender unit selectivity discovered by Streptomyces coelicolor genome mining. (2006) Journal of the American Chemical Society. 128(46):14754-5. DOI: 10.1021/ja065247w

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Deavours, B.E., Liu, C.J., Naoumkina, M.A., Tang, Y., Farag, M.A., Sumner, L.W., Noel, J.P., Dixon, R.A. Functional analysis of members of the isoflavone and isoflavanone O-methyltransferase enzyme families from the model legume Medicago truncatula. (2006) Plant Molecular Biology. 62(4-5):715-33. DOI: 10.1007/s11103-006-9050-x

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Austin, M.B., Saito, T., Bowman, M.E., Haydock, S., Kato, A., Moore, B.S., Kay, R.R., Noel, J.P. Biosynthesis of Dictyostelium discoideum differentiation-inducing factor by a hybrid type I fatty acid-type III polyketide synthase. (2006) Nature Chemical Biology. 2(9):494-502. DOI: 10.1038/nchembio811

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Pojer, F., Ferrer, J.L., Richard, S.B., Nagegowda, D.A., Chye, M.L., Bach, T.J., Noel, J.P. Structural basis for the design of potent and species-specific inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA synthases. (2006) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 103(31):11491-6. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0604935103

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Jäger, M., Zhang, Y., Bieschke, J., Nguyen, H., Dendle, M., Bowman, M.E., Noel, J.P., Gruebele, M., Kelly, J.W. Structure-function-folding relationship in a WW domain. (2006) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 103(28):10648-53. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0600511103

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Greenhagen, B.T., O'Maille, P.E., Noel, J.P., Chappell, J. Identifying and manipulating structural determinates linking catalytic specificities in terpene synthases. (2006) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 103(26):9826-31. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0601605103

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Koeduka, T., Fridman, E., Gang, D.R., Vassão, D.G., Jackson, B.L., Kish, C.M., Orlova, I., Spassova, S.M., Lewis, N.G., Noel, J.P., Baiga, T.J., Dudareva, N., Pichersky, E. Eugenol and isoeugenol, characteristic aromatic constituents of spices, are biosynthesized via reduction of a coniferyl alcohol ester. (2006) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 103(26):10128-33. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0603732103

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O'Maille, P.E., Chappell, J., Noel, J.P. Biosynthetic potential of sesquiterpene synthases: alternative products of tobacco 5-epi-aristolochene synthase. (2006) Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 448(1-2):73-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.abb.2005.10.028

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Coiner, H., Schröder, G., Wehinger, E., Liu, C.J., Noel, J.P., Schwab, W., Schröder, J. Methylation of sulfhydryl groups: a new function for a family of small molecule plant O-methyltransferases. (2006) Plant Journal. 46(2):193-205. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2006.02680.x

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Schenk, D.J., Starks, C.M., Manna, K.R., Chappell, J., Noel, J.P., Coates, R.M. Stereochemistry and deuterium isotope effects associated with the cyclization-rearrangements catalyzed by tobacco epiaristolochene and hyoscyamus premnaspirodiene synthases, and the chimeric CH4 hybri (2006) Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 448(1-2):31-44. DOI: 10.1016/j.abb.2005.09.002

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Yang, Y., Yuan, J.S., Ross, J., Noel, J.P., Pichersky, E., Chen, F. An Arabidopsis thaliana methyltransferase capable of methylating farnesoic acid. (2006) Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 448(1-2):123-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.abb.2005.08.006

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Lherbet, C., Pojer, F., Richard, S.B., Noel, J.P., Poulter, C.D. Absence of substrate channeling between active sites in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens IspDF and IspE enzymes of the methyl erythritol phosphate pathway. (2006) Biochemistry. 45(11):3548-53. DOI: 10.1021/bi0520075

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Pichersky, E., Noel, J.P., Dudareva, N. Biosynthesis of plant volatiles: nature's diversity and ingenuity. (2006) Science. 311(5762):808-11. DOI: 10.1126/science.1118510

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Testa, C.A., Lherbet, C., Pojer, F., Noel, J.P., Poulter, C.D. Cloning and expression of IspDF from Mesorhizobium loti. Characterization of a bifunctional protein that catalyzes non-consecutive steps in the methylerythritol phosphate pathway. (2006) Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1764(1):85-96. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbapap.2005.08.006

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Verdecia, M.A., Larkin, R.M., Ferrer, J.L., Riek, R., Chory, J., Noel, J.P. [Structure of the Mg-chelatase cofactor GUN4 reveals a novel hand-shaped fold for porphyrin binding]. (2005) Medecine Sciences (Paris). 21(11):903-4. DOI: 10.1051/medsci/20052111903


Bomati, E.K., Austin, M.B., Bowman, M.E., Dixon, R.A., Noel, J.P. Structural elucidation of chalcone reductase and implications for deoxychalcone biosynthesis. (2005) Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280(34):30496-503. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M502239200

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Kuzuyama, T., Noel, J.P., Richard, S.B. Structural basis for the promiscuous biosynthetic prenylation of aromatic natural products. (2005) Nature. 435(7044):983-7. DOI: 10.1038/nature03668

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Noel, J.P., Austin, M.B., Bomati, E.K. Structure-function relationships in plant phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. (2005) Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 8(3):249-53. DOI: 10.1016/j.pbi.2005.03.013

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Effmert, U., Saschenbrecker, S., Ross, J., Negre, F., Fraser, C.M., Noel, J.P., Dudareva, N., Piechulla, B. Floral benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases: from in vitro to in planta function. (2005) Phytochemistry. 66(11):1211-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.03.031

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Verdecia, M.A., Larkin, R.M., Ferrer, J.L., Riek, R., Chory, J., Noel, J.P. Structure of the Mg-chelatase cofactor GUN4 reveals a novel hand-shaped fold for porphyrin binding. (2005) PLOS Biology. 3(5):e151. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030151

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Bomati, E.K., Noel, J.P. Structural and kinetic basis for substrate selectivity in Populus tremuloides sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase. (2005) Plant Cell. 17(5):1598-611. DOI: 10.1105/tpc.104.029983

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Ferrer, J.L., Zubieta, C., Dixon, R.A., Noel, J.P. Crystal structures of alfalfa caffeoyl coenzyme A 3-O-methyltransferase. (2005) Plant Physiology. 137(3):1009-17. DOI: 10.1104/pp.104.048751

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Takahashi, S., Zhao, Y., O'Maille, P.E., Greenhagen, B.T., Noel, J.P., Coates, R.M., Chappell, J. Kinetic and molecular analysis of 5-epiaristolochene 1,3-dihydroxylase, a cytochrome P450 enzyme catalyzing successive hydroxylations of sesquiterpenes. (2005) Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280(5):3686-96. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M411870200

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O'Maille, P.E., Chappell, J., Noel, J.P. A single-vial analytical and quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for terpene synthases. (2004) Anal. Biochem. 335(2):210-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2004.09.011

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Austin, M.B., Izumikawa, M., Bowman, M.E., Udwary, D.W., Ferrer, J.L., Moore, B.S., Noel, J.P. Crystal structure of a bacterial type III polyketide synthase and enzymatic control of reactive polyketide intermediates. (2004) Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279(43):45162-74. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M406567200

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Austin, M.B., Bowman, M.E., Ferrer, J.L., Schröder, J., Noel, J.P. An aldol switch discovered in stilbene synthases mediates cyclization specificity of type III polyketide synthases. (2004) Chemistry & Biology. 11(9):1179-94. DOI: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2004.05.024

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Richard, S.B., Lillo, A.M., Tetzlaff, C.N., Bowman, M.E., Noel, J.P., Cane, D.E. Kinetic analysis of Escherichia coli 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate cytidyltransferase, wild type and mutants, reveals roles of active site amino acids. (2004) Biochemistry. 43(38):12189-97. DOI: 10.1021/bi0487241

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Pott, M.B., Hippauf, F., Saschenbrecker, S., Chen, F., Ross, J., Kiefer, I., Slusarenko, A., Noel, J.P., Pichersky, E., Effmert, U., Piechulla, B. Biochemical and structural characterization of benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases involved in floral scent production in Stephanotis floribunda and Nicotiana suaveolens. (2004) Plant Physiology. 135(4):1946-55. DOI: 10.1104/pp.104.041806

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Hendricks, C.L., Ross, J.R., Pichersky, E., Noel, J.P., Zhou, Z.S. An enzyme-coupled colorimetric assay for S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases. (2004) Analytical Biochemistry. 326(1):100-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2003.11.014

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O'Maille, P.E., Tsai, M.D., Greenhagen, B.T., Chappell, J., Noel, J.P. Gene library synthesis by structure-based combinatorial protein engineering. (2004) Meth. Enzymol. 388:75-91. DOI: 10.1016/S0076-6879(04)88008-X


Chen, F., D'Auria, J.C., Tholl, D., Ross, J.R., Gershenzon, J., Noel, J.P., Pichersky, E. An Arabidopsis thaliana gene for methylsalicylate biosynthesis, identified by a biochemical genomics approach, has a role in defense. (2003) Plant Journal. 36(5):577-88.

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Zubieta, C., Ross, J.R., Koscheski, P., Yang, Y., Pichersky, E., Noel, J.P. Structural basis for substrate recognition in the salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase family. (2003) Plant Cell. 15(8):1704-16.

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Izumikawa, M., Shipley, P.R., Hopke, J.N., O'Hare, T., Xiang, L., Noel, J.P., Moore, B.S. Expression and characterization of the type III polyketide synthase 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene synthase from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). (2003) Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology. 30(8):510-5. DOI: 10.1007/s10295-003-0075-8

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Sonnenburg, E.D., Bilwes, A., Hunter, T., Noel, J.P. The structure of the membrane distal phosphatase domain of RPTPalpha reveals interdomain flexibility and an SH2 domain interaction region. (2003) Biochemistry. 42(26):7904-14. DOI: 10.1021/bi0340503

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Downes, M., Verdecia, M.A., Roecker, A.J., Hughes, R., Hogenesch, J.B., Kast-Woelbern, H.R., Bowman, M.E., Ferrer, J.L., Anisfeld, A.M., Edwards, P.A., Rosenfeld, J.M., Alvarez, J.G., Noel, J.P., Nicolaou, K.C., Evans, R.M. A chemical, genetic, and structural analysis of the nuclear bile acid receptor FXR. (2003) Molecular Cell. 11(4):1079-92.

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Austin, M.B., Noel, J.P. The chalcone synthase superfamily of type III polyketide synthases. (2003) Natural Product Reports. 20(1):79-110.

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Verdecia, M.A., Joazeiro, C.A., Wells, N.J., Ferrer, J.L., Bowman, M.E., Hunter, T., Noel, J.P. Conformational flexibility underlies ubiquitin ligation mediated by the WWP1 HECT domain E3 ligase. (2003) Molecular Cell. 11(1):249-59.

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Moore, B.S., Hertweck, C., Hopke, J.N., Izumikawa, M., Kalaitzis, J.A., Nilsen, G., O'Hare, T., Piel, J., Shipley, P.R., Xiang, L., Austin, M.B., Noel, J.P. Plant-like biosynthetic pathways in bacteria: from benzoic acid to chalcone. (2002) Journal of Natural Products. 65(12):1956-62. DOI: 10.1021/np020230m

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Beachy, R., Bennetzen, J.L., Chassy, B.M., Chrispeels, M., Chory, J., Ecker, J.R., Noel, J.P., Kay, S.A., Dean, C., Lamb, C., Jones, J., Santerre, C.R., Schroeder, J.I., Umen, J., Yanofsky, M., Wessler, S., Zhao, Y., Parrott, W. Divergent perspectives on GM food. (2002) Nature Biotechnology. 20(12):1195-6; author reply 1197. DOI: 10.1038/nbt1202-1195


Zubieta, C., Kota, P., Ferrer, J.L., Dixon, R.A., Noel, J.P. Structural basis for the modulation of lignin monomer methylation by caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid 3/5-O-methyltransferase. (2002) Plant Cell. 14(6):1265-77.

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Jez, J.M., Bowman, M.E., Noel, J.P. Expanding the biosynthetic repertoire of plant type III polyketide synthases by altering starter molecule specificity. (2002) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 99(8):5319-24. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.082590499

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Jez, J.M., Bowman, M.E., Noel, J.P. Role of hydrogen bonds in the reaction mechanism of chalcone isomerase. (2002) Biochemistry. 41(16):5168-76.

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Richard, S.B., Ferrer, J.L., Bowman, M.E., Lillo, A.M., Tetzlaff, C.N., Cane, D.E., Noel, J.P. Structure and mechanism of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase. An enzyme in the mevalonate-independent isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. (2002) Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277(10):8667-72. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.C100739200

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Gang, D.R., Lavid, N., Zubieta, C., Chen, F., Beuerle, T., Lewinsohn, E., Noel, J.P., Pichersky, E. Characterization of phenylpropene O-methyltransferases from sweet basil: facile change of substrate specificity and convergent evolution within a plant O-methyltransferase family. (2002) Plant Cell. 14(2):505-19.

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Jez, J.M., Noel, J.P. Reaction mechanism of chalcone isomerase. pH dependence, diffusion control, and product binding differences. (2002) Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277(2):1361-9. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M109224200

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Lu, P.J., Zhou, X.Z., Liou, Y.C., Noel, J.P., Lu, K.P. Critical role of WW domain phosphorylation in regulating phosphoserine binding activity and Pin1 function. (2002) Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277(4):2381-4. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.C100228200

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Jez, J.M., Ferrer, J.L., Bowman, M.E., Austin, M.B., Schröder, J., Dixon, R.A., Noel, J.P. Structure and mechanism of chalcone synthase-like polyketide synthases. (2001) Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology. 27(6):393-8. DOI: 10.1038/sj/jim/7000188

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Jez, J.M., Bowman, M.E., Noel, J.P. Structure-guided programming of polyketide chain-length determination in chalcone synthase. (2001) Biochemistry. 40(49):14829-38.

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Richard, S.B., Bowman, M.E., Kwiatkowski, W., Kang, I., Chow, C., Lillo, A.M., Cane, D.E., Noel, J.P. Structure of 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C- methylerythritol synthetase involved in mevalonate- independent isoprenoid biosynthesis. (2001) Nature Structural Biology. 8(7):641-8. DOI: 10.1038/89691

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Zubieta, C., He, X.Z., Dixon, R.A., Noel, J.P. Structures of two natural product methyltransferases reveal the basis for substrate specificity in plant O-methyltransferases. (2001) Nature Structural Biology. 8(3):271-9. DOI: 10.1038/85029

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Jez, J.M., Austin, M.B., Ferrer, J., Bowman, M.E., Schröder, J., Noel, J.P. Structural control of polyketide formation in plant-specific polyketide synthases. (2000) Chemistry & Biology. 7(12):919-30.

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Jez, J.M., Noel, J.P. Mechanism of chalcone synthase. pKa of the catalytic cysteine and the role of the conserved histidine in a plant polyketide synthase. (2000) Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275(50):39640-6. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M008569200

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Jez, J.M., Bowman, M.E., Dixon, R.A., Noel, J.P. Structure and mechanism of the evolutionarily unique plant enzyme chalcone isomerase. (2000) Nature Structural Biology. 7(9):786-91. DOI: 10.1038/79025

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Verdecia, M.A., Bowman, M.E., Lu, K.P., Hunter, T., Noel, J.P. Structural basis for phosphoserine-proline recognition by group IV WW domains. (2000) Nature Structural Biology. 7(8):639-43. DOI: 10.1038/77929

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Verdecia, M.A., Huang, H., Dutil, E., Kaiser, D.A., Hunter, T., Noel, J.P. Structure of the human anti-apoptotic protein survivin reveals a dimeric arrangement. (2000) Nature Structural Biology. 7(7):602-8. DOI: 10.1038/76838

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Jez, J.M., Ferrer, J.L., Bowman, M.E., Dixon, R.A., Noel, J.P. Dissection of malonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylation from polyketide formation in the reaction mechanism of a plant polyketide synthase. (2000) Biochemistry. 39(5):890-902.

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Jiang, G., den Hertog, J., Su, J., Noel, J., Sap, J., Hunter, T. Dimerization inhibits the activity of receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase-alpha. (1999) Nature. 401(6753):606-10. DOI: 10.1038/44170

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Ferrer, J.L., Jez, J.M., Bowman, M.E., Dixon, R.A., Noel, J.P. Structure of chalcone synthase and the molecular basis of plant polyketide biosynthesis. (1999) Nature Structural Biology. 6(8):775-84. DOI: 10.1038/11553

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Majeti, R., Bilwes, A.M., Noel, J.P., Hunter, T., Weiss, A. Dimerization-induced inhibition of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase function through an inhibitory wedge. (1998) Science. 279(5347):88-91.

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Starks, C.M., Back, K., Chappell, J., Noel, J.P. Structural basis for cyclic terpene biosynthesis by tobacco 5-epi-aristolochene synthase. (1997) Science. 277(5333):1815-20.

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Noel, J.P. Turning off the Ras switch with the flick of a finger. (1997) Nature Structural Biology. 4(9):677-80.


Ranganathan, R., Lu, K.P., Hunter, T., Noel, J.P. Structural and functional analysis of the mitotic rotamase Pin1 suggests substrate recognition is phosphorylation dependent. (1997) Cell. 89(6):875-86.

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Bilwes, A.M., den Hertog, J., Hunter, T., Noel, J.P. Structural basis for inhibition of receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase-alpha by dimerization. (1996) Nature. 382(6591):555-9. DOI: 10.1038/382555a0

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Sondek, J., Lambright, D.G., Noel, J.P., Hamm, H.E., Sigler, P.B. GTPase mechanism of Gproteins from the 1.7-A crystal structure of transducin alpha-GDP-AIF-4. (1994) Nature. 372(6503):276-9. DOI: 10.1038/372276a0

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Lambright, D.G., Noel, J.P., Hamm, H.E., Sigler, P.B. Structural determinants for activation of the alpha-subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein. (1994) Nature. 369(6482):621-8. DOI: 10.1038/369621a0

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Noel, J.P., Hamm, H.E., Sigler, P.B. The 2.2 A crystal structure of transducin-alpha complexed with GTP gamma S. (1993) Nature. 366(6456):654-63. DOI: 10.1038/366654a0

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Dupureur, C.M., Yu, B.Z., Jain, M.K., Noel, J.P., Deng, T., Li, Y., Byeon, I.J., Tsai, M.D. Phospholipase A2 engineering. Structural and functional roles of highly conserved active site residues tyrosine-52 and tyrosine-73. (1992) Biochemistry. 31(28):6402-13.

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Noel, J.P., Bingman, C.A., Deng, T.L., Dupureur, C.M., Hamilton, K.J., Jiang, R.T., Kwak, J.G., Sekharudu, C., Sundaralingam, M., Tsai, M.D. Phospholipase A2 engineering. X-ray structural and functional evidence for the interaction of lysine-56 with substrates. (1991) Biochemistry. 30(51):11801-11.

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Deng, T.L., Noel, J.P., Tsai, M.D. A novel expression vector for high-level synthesis and secretion of foreign proteins in Escherichia coli: overproduction of bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2. (1990) Gene. 93(2):229-34.

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Noel, J.P., Tsai, M.D. Phospholipase A2 engineering: design, synthesis, and expression of a gene for bovine (pro)phospholipase A2. (1989) J. Cell. Biochem. 40(3):309-20. DOI: 10.1002/jcb.240400307

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Lin, G., Noel, J., Loffredo, W., Stable, H.Z., Tsai, M.D. Use of short-chain cyclopentano-phosphatidylcholines to probe the mode of activation of phospholipase A2 from bovine pancreas and bee venom. (1988) Journal of Biological Chemistry. 263(26):13208-14.

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Education

BS, Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown
PhD, Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University
Postdoctoral Fellow, Structural Biology, Yale University


Awards & Honors

  • 2012 AAAS Fellow
  • 2005 Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator
  • 1993 National Institutes of Heath Postdoctoral Fellow
  • 1990 National Science Foundation Chemistry Postdoctoral Fellow
  • 1989 Monsanto Biotechnology Fellow
  • 1988 Presidential Fellow

Profile