Salk Institute
Joseph P. Noel
Professor and Director, Jack H. Skirball Center for Chemical Biology and Proteomics
Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator
Arthur and Julie Woodrow Chair
Joseph P. Noel

Professor and Director, Jack H. Skirball Center for Chemical Biology and Proteomics
Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator
Arthur and Julie Woodrow Chair



Mechanistic and Structural Basis for Plant Metabolic Evolution

What shapes natural selection of specialized enzymes and metabolic pathways underlying the emergence and expansion of chemical diversity in living systems remains a fundamental yet largely unanswered question in evolutionary biology. For sessile organisms possessing the developmental and ecological complexity of plants, this adaptive process is especially critical to their survival. The chemical output of these metabolic pathways serve as key mediators of intra- and interspecies interactions resulting in speciation, survival and ecological homeostasis. Specifically, we seek to understand and infer as best as possible the adaptive molecular changes that have occurred in plant specialized metabolism as these enzyme systems emerged and subsequently evolved from their ancestral roots in primary metabolism at the dawn of terrestrial plants nearly 500 millions ago.

Early land plants arose from freshwater ecological niches. Their success on land, driven by evolutionary adaptations such as their ability to screen out damaging UV radiation, their adeptness at resisting desiccation and their mastery of self-support and fluid conduction, had far-reaching consequences for the complexity of terrestrial ecosystems that followed this defining event on the terrestrial earth. Land plant early success and the ongoing diversification of the green plant lineage was then and is to this day due in large part to their ability to biosynthesize specialized or so-called secondary metabolites.

Through photosynthesis, early land plants provided major nutritional stores that precipitated the dawn and development of almost all the early terrestrial life forms, including tetrapods, insects, fungi and even microorganisms. In turn, the rise of land plants profoundly impacted the global climate. For example, carbon fixation by early land plants is considered one of the major factors that led to the significant drop of atmospheric CO2 levels and a corresponding increase of O2 levels during the late Palaeozoic era. These changes in atmospheric composition, in turn, precipitated more physiological innovations, e. g. the evolution of aerial locomotion in insects and the origin of megaphyll leaves in plants.

Given the momentous contribution of plant specialized metabolism to the biodiversity of the terrestrial earth, specialized metabolic pathways and their "chemical output" present us with a rich evolutionary record of where biosynthetic pathways, natural chemicals and biosynthetic enzymes have been (vestigial biochemical traits), what adaptive advantages these complex enzymatic systems hold in the present (emergent function), and ultimately where these pathways may be heading in the future (functional plasticity).

Our decade-long study of these metabolic pathways has coalesced around four fundamental questions regarding the origin of specialized metabolism during land plant evolution. (i) Can one discern the phylogenetic routes through which plant secondary metabolic enzymes evolved from their primary metabolic ancestors? (ii) What are the biophysical features inherited by these enzymes that give rise to evolvability and/or restrain such evolutionary processes? (iii) How was the evolutionary directionality maintained if at all before the emergence of the defining activities that provided obvious selective advantages? (iv) What role did catalytic promiscuity play in shaping the evolvability of these biosynthetic systems? Answering these questions not only will extend our understanding of the biochemical strategies that early land plants adopted in their adaptation to a myriad of terrestrial environments, but will also better shape our appreciation of mutability and the origins of new enzyme function in general. Our work examines the evolution, biology, biochemistry and chemistry underlying the biosynthesis of plant natural products including isoprenoids, phenylpropanoids, polyketides and associated flavonoids and fatty acid-derived metabolites.

"Nature has been perfecting enzymes for at least three billion years because they carry out the hundreds of thousands of chemical reactions in all organisms, and these reactions are needed by us all to survive and prosper. We could learn a lot by understanding that three-billion-year-old experiment."

Noel's laboratory explores how specialized enzymes and metabolic pathways allowed plants to adapt and spread across the planet and what these mechanisms can tell us about improving modern-day agriculture. His team discovered a family of plant proteins that plays a role in the production of seed oils, substances important for animal and human nutrition, biorenewable chemicals and biofuels.

Plant oils are composed primarily of triglycerides, formed by linking together three fatty acid molecules, and are stored mostly in seeds, where they are used for energy during germination. Seeds are crucial sources of oils for nutrition, flavoring and industrial applications, such as the production of soap, cosmetics and biofuels. With growing concerns about global climate change and petroleum security, producing biofuels for use in transportation and energy generation is a burgeoning industry.

Scoring a rare scientific hat trick, Noel's lab identified three related proteins in thale cress plants (Arabidopsis thaliana) that regulate the metabolism of fatty acids, chemical components of all cell membranes and vegetable oils. They dubbed these fatty acid– binding proteins FAP1, FAP2 and FAP3. They found that the proteins bind fatty acids, including the major plant omega-3 fatty acid, an important nutritional component found in certain seeds.

This work has major implications for modulating the fatty acid profiles of plants, which is important to sustainable production of food, biorenewable chemicals and fuels. Because very high-energy molecules such as fatty acids are created in the plant by solar energy, these types of molecules may ultimately provide the most efficient sources for biorenewable products.

The findings of Noel's lab may lead to the development of improved crops yielding higher qualities and quantities of oils, helping to address growing demands for food and fuel and the consequent environmental pressures on the world's ecosystems. The discovery may also help bioengineers focused on creating new enzymes for industrial uses by revealing how nature evolves proteins into chemical machines known as enzymes.

Lab Photo

Left to right:
Gordon Louie, Marianne Bowman, Jing-Ke Weng, June Brennan, Joe Noel, Hyun Jo Koo, Helena Sun, Ryan Philippe, Yongxia Guo, Charles Stewart, Kate Woods, Justin Pacheco, Charisse Crenshaw

Selected Publications

Google Scholar Statistics: 9730 Citations; 49 h-index

Peer-Reviewed Research Publications

Zhang, M., Wang, X.J., Chen, X., Bowman, M.E., Luo, Y., Noel, J.P., Ellington, A.D., Etzkorn, F.A. and Zhang, Y. (2012) Structural and Kinetic Analysis of Prolyl-isomerization/Phosphorylation Cross-Talk in the CTD Code. ACS Chem Biol. 7:1462-1470. Epub 2012 Jun 18. PubMed PMID: 22670809; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3423551.

Ngaki, M.N.*, Louie, G.V.*, Philippe, R.*, Manning, G., Pojer, F., Bowman, M.E., Ling, Li, Larsen, E., Syrkin Wurtele, E. and Noel, J.P. (2012) Evolution of the Chalcone-Isomerase Fold from Fatty-Acid Binding to Stereospecific Catalysis. Nature 485: 530-533. doi:10.1038/nature11009. PubMed PMID: 22622584. (*equal contributions).

Auldridge, M.E., Austin, M.B., Ramsey, J., Fridman, E., Pichersky, E. and Noel, J.P. (2012) Emergent decarboxylase activity and attenuation of a/b hydrolase activity during the evolution of methylketone biosynthesis in tomato. Plant Cell 24: 1596-1607. Epub 2012 Apr 20. PubMed PMID: 22523203; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3398566.

Hess, B.A., Smentek, L., Noel, J.P. and O'Maille, P.E. (2011) Physical constraints on sesquiterpene diversity arising from cyclization of the eudesm-5-yl carbocation. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133: 12632-12641. Epub 2011 Jul 26. PubMed PMID: 21714557.

Shen, B., Xiang, Z., Miller, B., Louie, G., Wang, W., Noel, J.P., Gage, F.H. and Wang, L. (2011) Genetically Encoding Unnatural Amino Acids in Neural Stem Cells and Optically Reporting Voltage-Sensitive Domain Changes in Differentiated Neurons. Stem Cells. 29: 1231-1240. doi: 10.1002/stem.679. PubMed PMID: 21681861; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3209808.

Hothorn, M., Belkhadir, Y., Dreux, M., Dabi, T., Noel, J.P., Wilson, I.A. and Chory, J. (2011) Structural basis of steroid hormone perception by the receptor kinase BRI1. Nature 474: 467-471. doi: 10.1038/nature10153. PubMed PMID: 21666665; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3280218.

Takimoto, J.K., Dellas, N., Noel, J.P. and Wang L. (2011) Stereochemical Basis for Engineered Pyrrolysyl-tRNA Synthetase and the Efficient in Vivo Incorporation of Structurally Divergent Non-native Amino Acids. ACS Chem. Biol. 6: 733-743. Epub 2011 May 5. PubMed PMID: 21545173; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3137230.

Louie, G.V., Bowman, M.E., Tu, Y., Mouradov, A., Spangenberg, G. and Noel, J.P. (2010) Structure-function analyses of a Caffeic Acid O-methyltransferase from Perennial Ryegrass Reveal the Molecular Basis for Substrate Preference. Plant Cell 22: 4114-4127. Epub 2010 Dec 21. PubMed PMID: 21177481; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3027180.

Tu, Y., Rochfort, S., Liu, Z., Ran, Y., Griffith, M., Badenhorst, P., Louie, G.V., Bowman, M.E., Smith, K.F., Noel, J.P., Mouradov, A. and Spangenberg, G. (2010) Functional Analyses of Caffeic Acid O-Methyltransferase and Cinnamoyl-CoA-Reductase Genes from Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Plant Cell 22: 3357-3373. Epub 2010 Oct 15. PubMed PMID: 20952635; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2990129.

Yu, G.*, Nguyen, T.T.*, Guo, Y.*, Schauvinhold, I., Auldridge, M.E., Bhuiyan, N., Ben-Israel, I., Iijima, Y., Fridman, E., Noel, J.P. and Pichersky, E. (2010) Enzymatic functions of wild tomato methylketone synthases 1 and 2. Plant Physiol. 154: 67-77. Epub 2010 Jul 6. PubMed PMID: 20605911; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2938155 (*equal contributions).

Dellas, N. and Noel, J.P. (2010) Mutation of Archaeal Isopentenyl Phosphate Kinase Highlights Mechanism and Guides Phosphorylation of Additional Isoprenoid Monophosphates. ACS Chem. Biol. 18: 589-610. PubMed PMID: 20392112; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2887675.

Zhang, M., Liu, J., Kim, Y., Dixon, J.E., Pfaff, S.L., Gill, G.N., Noel, J.P. and Zhang, Y. (2010) Structural and functional analysis of the phosphoryl transfer reaction mediated by the human small C-terminal domain phosphatase, Scp1. Protein Sci. 19: 974-986. PubMed PMID: 20222012; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2868240.

Faraldos, J.A., O’Maille, P.E., Dellas, N., Noel, J.P. and Coates, R.M. (2010) Bisabolyl-Derived Sesquiterpenes from Tobacco 5-Epi-aristolochene Synthase-Catalyzed Cyclization of (2Z,6E)-Farnesyl Diphosphate. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132: 4281-4289. PubMed PMID: 20201526.

Noel, J.P., Dellas, N., Faraldos, J.A., Zhao, Y., Hess, B.A., Smentek, L., Coates, R.M. and O’Maille, P.E. (2010) Structural Elucidation of Cisoid and Transoid Cyclization Pathways of a Sesquiterpene Synthase Using 2-Fluorofarnesyl Diphosphates. ACS Chem. Biol. 5: 377-392. PubMed PMID: 20175559; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2860371.

Lear, M.J., Simon, O., Foley, T.L., Burkart, M.D., Baiga, T.J., Noel, J.P., DiPasquale, A.G., Rheingold, A.L. and La Clair, J.J. (2009) Laetirobin from the Parasitic Growth of Laetiporus sulphureus on Robinia pseudoacacia. J Nat Prod. 72: 1980-1987. PubMed PMID: 19842686.

Ben-Israel, I., Yu, G., Austin, M.B., Bhuiyan, N., Auldridge, M., Nguyen, T., Schauvinhold, I., Noel, J.P., Pichersky, E. and Fridman, E. (2009) Multiple Biochemical and Morphological Factors Underlie the Production of Methylketones in Tomato Trichomes. Plant Physiol. 151: 1952-1964. Epub 2009 Oct 2. PubMed PMID: 19801397; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2785994.

Koeduka, T., Orlova, I., Baiga, T.J., Noel, J.P., Dudareva, N. and Pichersky, E. (2009) The lack of floral synthesis and emission of isoeugenol in Petunia axillaris subsp. Parodii is due to a mutation in the isoeugenol synthase gene. Plant J. 58: 961-969. Epub 2009 Feb 13. PubMed PMID: 19222805; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2860387.

Koeduka, T., Baiga, T., Noel, J.P. and Pichersky, E. (2008) Biosynthesis of t-Anethole in Anise (Pimpinella anisum): Characterization of t-Anol/Isoeugenol Synthase and a O-Methyltransferase Specific for a C7-C8 Propenyl Side Chain. Plant Physiol. 149: 384-394. Epub 2008 Nov 5. PubMed PMID: 18987218; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2613694.

Savaldi-Goldstein, S., Baiga, T.J., Pojer, F., Dabi, T., Butterfield, C., Parry, G., Santner, A., Dharmasiri, N., Tao, Y., Estelle, M., Noel, J.P. and Chory, J. (2008) New auxin analogs with growth-promoting effects in intact plants reveal a chemical strategy to improve hormone delivery. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105: 15190-15195. Epub 2008 Sep 25. PubMed PMID: 18818305; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2567513.

O'Maille, P.E., Malone, A., Dellas, N., Hess, B.A., Smentek, L., Sheehan, I., Greenhagen, B.T., Chappell, J., Manning, G. and Noel, J.P. (2008) Quantitative exploration of the catalytic landscape separating divergent plant sesquiterpene synthases. Nat. Chem. Biol. 4: 617-623. Epub 2008 Sep 7. PubMed PMID: 18776889; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2664519.

Eustaquio, A.S., Harle, J., Noel, J.P. and Moore, B.S. (2008) S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine Hydrolase (Adenosine-Forming), a Conserved Bacterial and Archeal Protein Related to SAM-Dependent Halogenases. Chembiochem. 9: 2215-2219. PubMed PMID: 18720493; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2692205.

Kumano, T., Richard, S.B., Noel, J.P., Nishiyama, M. and Kuzuyama, T. (2008) Chemoenzymatic syntheses of prenylated aromatic small molecules using Streptomyces prenyltransferases with relaxed substrate specificities. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 16: 8117-8126. Epub 2008 Jul 24. PubMed PMID: 18682327; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2860626.

Tao, Y., Ferrer, J.-L., Pojer, F., Hong, F., Ljung, K., Long, J.A., Li, L., Moreno, J.E., Bowman, M.E., Ivans, L.J., Lim, J., Ballare, C.L., Sandberg, G., Noel, J.P. and Chory, J. (2008) Rapid synthesis of auxin via a new tryptophan-dependent pathway is required for the shade avoidance response of plants. Cell 133: 164-176. PubMed PMID: 18394996; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2442466.

Baiga, T.J., Guo, H., Xing, Y., O'Doherty, G.A., Dillin, A., Austin, M.B., Noel, J.P. and La Clair, J.J. (2008) Metabolite induction of Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larvae arises via transport in the pharnyx. ACS Chem. Biol. 3: 294-304. Epub 2008 Apr 1. PubMed PMID: 18376812; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2692194.

Koeduka, T., Louie, G.V., Orlova, I., Kish, C.M., Ibdah, M., Wilkerson, C.G., Bowman, M.E., Baiga, T.J., Noel, J.P., Dudareva, N. and Pichersky, E. (2008) The multiple phenylpropene synthases in both Clarkia breweri and Petunia hybrida represent two distinct protein lineages. Plant J. 54: 362-374. Epub 2008 Jan 16. PubMed PMID: 18208524; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2741023.

Zhao, N., Ferrer, J.-L., Ross, J., Guan, J., Yang, Y., Pichersky, E., Noel, J.P. and Chen, F. (2008) Structural, Biochemical and Phylogenetic Analyses Suggest that Indole-3-acetic Acid Methyltransferase Is An Evolutionarily Ancient Member of the SABATH Family. Plant Physiol. 146: 455-467. Epub 2007 Dec 27. PubMed PMID: 18162595; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2245846.

Eustaquio, A.S.*, Pojer, F.*, Noel, J.P. and Moore, B.S. (2008) Discovery and characterization of a marine bacterial SAM-dependent chlorinase. Nat. Chem. Biol. 4: 69-74. Epub 2007 Dec 2. PubMed PMID: 18059261; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2762381 (*equal contributions).

Louie, G.V., Baiga, T.J., Bowman, M.E., Koeduka, T., Taylor, J.H., Spassova, S.M., Pichersky, E. and Noel, J.P. (2007) Structure and reaction mechanism of basil eugenol synthase. PLoS ONE. 10: e993. PubMed PMID: 17912370; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1991597.

Faraldos, J.A., Zhao, Y., O'Maille, P.E., Noel, J.P. and Coates, R.M. (2007) Interception of the enzymatic conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to 5-epi-aristolochene by using a fluoro substrate analogue: 1-fluorogermacrene A from (2E,6Z)-6-fluorofarnesyl diphosphate. ChemBioChem. 8: 1826-1833. Epub 2007 Sep 20. PubMed PMID: 17886322; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2735885.

Takahashi, S., Yeo, Y.S., Zhao, Y., O'Maille, P.E., Greenhagen, B.T., Noel, J.P., Coates, R.M. and Chappell, J. (2007) Functional characterization of premnaspirodiene oxygenase, a cytochrome P450 catalyzing regio- and stereo-specific hydroxylations of diverse sesquiterpene substrates. J. Biol. Chem. 282: 31744-31754. Epub 2007 Aug 22. PubMed PMID: 17715131; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2695360.

Wang, W., Takimoto, J.K., Louie, G.V., Baiga, T.J., Noel, J.P., Lee, K.F., Slesinger, P.A. and Wang, L. (2007) Genetically encoding unnatural amino acids for cellular and neuronal studies. Nat. Neurosci. 10: 1063-1072. Epub 2007 Jul 1. PubMed PMID: 17603477; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2692200.

Haagen, Y., Unsold, I., Westrich, L., Gust, B., Richard, S.B., Noel, J.P. and Heide, L. (2007) A soluble magnesium-independent prenyltransferase catalyzes the reverse and regular C-prenylations and O-prenylations of aromatic substrates. FEBS Lett. 581: 2889-2893. Epub 2007 May 22. PubMed PMID: 17543953; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2860617.

Zhang, Y., Daum, S., Wildemann, D., Zhou, X.Z., Verdecia, M.A., Bowman, M.E., Lücke, C., Hunter, T., Lu, K.-P., Fischer, G. and Noel, J.P. (2007) Structural basis for high-affinity peptide inhibition of human Pin1. ACS Chem. Biol. 2: 320-328. PubMed PMID: 17518432; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2692202.

Moffitt, M.C.*, Louie, G.V.*, Bowman, M.E., Pence, J., Noel, J.P. and Moore, B.S. (2007) Discovery of two cyanobacterial phenylalanine ammonia lyases: kinetic and structural characterization. Biochemistry 46: 1004-1012. PubMed PMID: 17240984; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2586389 (*equal contributions).

Varbanova. M., Yamaguchi, S., Yang, Y., McKelvey, K., Hanada, A., Borochov, R., Yu, F., Jikumaru, Y., Ross, J., Cortes, D., Ma, C.J., Noel, J.P., Mander, L., Shulaev, V., Kamiya, Y., Rodermel, S., Weiss, D. and Pichersky, E. (2007) Methylation of gibberellins by Arabidopsis GAMT1 and GAMT2. Plant Cell 19: 32-45. Epub 2007 Jan 12. PubMed PMID: 17220201; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1820973.

Louie, G.V., Bowman, M.E., Moffitt, M.C., Baiga, T.J., Moore, B.S. and Noel, J.P. (2006) Structural determinants and modulation of substrate specificity in phenylalanine - tyrosine ammonia-lyases. Chem. Biol. 13: 1327-1338. PubMed PMID: 17185228; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2859959.

Ferrer, J.-L., Dupuy, J., Borel, F., Jacquamet, L., Noel, J.P. and Dulic, V. (2006) Structural basis for the modulation of CDK-dependent/independent activity of cyclin D1. Cell Cycle 5: 2760-2768. Epub 2006 Dec 1. PubMed PMID: 17172845; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2864588.

Liu, C.J., Deavours, B.E., Richard, S.B., Ferrer, J.L., Blount, J.W., Huhman, D., Dixon, R.A. and Noel, J.P. (2006) Structural basis for dual functionality of isoflavonoid O-methyltransferase in the evolution of plant defense responses. Plant Cell 18: 3656-3669. Epub 2006 Dec 15. PubMed PMID: 17172354; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1785397.

Zhang, Y., Kim, Y., Genoud, N., Gao, J., Kelly, J.W., Pfaff, S.L., Gill, G.N., Dixon, J.E. and Noel, J.P. (2006) Determinants for Dephosphorylation of the RNA Polymerase II C-terminal domain by Scp1. Mol. Cell 24: 759-770. PubMed PMID: 17157258; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2859291

Song, L., Barona-Gomez, F., Corre, C., Xiang, L., Udwary, D.W., Austin, M.B., Noel, J.P., Moore, B.S. and Challis, G.L. (2006) Type III Polyketide Synthase beta-Ketoacyl-ACP Starter Unit and Ethylmalonyl-CoA Extender Unit Selectivity Discovered by Streptomyces coelicolor Genome Mining. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128: 14754-14755. PubMed PMID: 17105255; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2859292.

Takahashi, S., Yeo, Y., Greenhagen, B.T., McMullin, T., Song, L., Maurina-Brunker, J., Rosson, R., Noel, J.P. and Chappell, J. (2007) Metabolic engineering of sesquiterpene metabolism in yeast. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 97: 170-181. PubMed PMID: 17013941; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2859293.

Deavours, B.E., Liu, C.J., Naoumkina, M.A., Tang, Y., Farag, M.A., Sumner, L.W., Noel, J.P. and Dixon, R.A. (2006) Functional analysis of members of the isoflavone and isoflavone O-methyltransferase enzyme families from the model legume Medicago truncatula. Plant Mol. Biol. 62: 715-733. Epub 2006 Sep 26. PubMed PMID: 17001495; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2862459.

Austin, M.B.*, Saito, T.*, Bowman, M.E., Haydock, S., Kato, A., Moore, B.S., Kay, R.R. and Noel, J.P. (2006) Biosynthesis of Dictyostelium discoideum differentiation-inducing factor by a hybrid type I fatty acid-type III polyketide synthase. Nat. Chem. Biol. 2: 494-502. Epub 2006 Aug 13. PubMed PMID: 16906151; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2864586 (*equal contributions).

Pojer, F., Ferrer, J.-L., Richard, S.B., Nagegowda, D.A., Chye, M.-L., Bach, T.J., and Noel, J.P. (2006) Structural basis for the design of potent and species-specific inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA synthases. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103: 11491-11496. Epub 2006 Jul 24. PubMed PMID: 16864776; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1544197.

Jager, M., Zhang, Y., Bieschke, J., Nguyen, H., Dendle, G., Bowman, M.E., Noel, J.P., Gruebele, M. and Kelly, J.W. (2006) Structure-function-folding relationship in a WW domain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103: 10648-10653. Epub 2006 Jun 28. PubMed PMID: 16807295; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1502286.

Greenhagen, B.T., O'Maille, P.E., Noel, J.P. and Chappell, J. (2006) Identifying and manipulating structural determinants linking catalytic specificities in terpene synthases. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103: 9826-9831. Epub 2006 Jun 19. PubMed PMID: 16785438; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1502538.

Koeduka, T., Fridman, E., Gang, D.R., Vassao, D.G., Jackson, B.L., Kish, C.M., Orlova, I., Spassova, S.M., Lewis, N.G., Noel, J.P., Baiga, T.J., Dudareva, N. and Pichersky, E. (2006) From the Cover: Eugenol and isoeugenol, characteristic aromatic constituents of spices, are biosynthesized via reduction of a coniferyl alcohol ester. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103: 10128-10133. Epub 2006 Jun 16. PubMed PMID: 16782809; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1502517.

Yang, Y., Varbanova, M., Ross, J., Wang, G., Cortes, D., Fridman, E., Shulaev, V., Noel, J.P. and Pichersky E. (2006) Methylation and demethylation of plant signal molecules. Rec. Adv. Phytochem. 40: 253-270.

Fridman, E., Koezuka, T., Auldridge, M., Austin, M.B., Noel, J.P. and Pichersky, E. (2006) Tomato glandular trichomes as a model system for exploring evolution of specialized metabolism in a single cell. Rec. Adv. Phytochem. 40: 115-130.

Coiner, H., Schroeder, G., Wehinger, E., Liu, C.-J., Noel, J.P., Schwab, W., and Schroeder, J. (2006) Methylation of sulfhydryl groups: a new function for a family of small molecule plant O-methyltransferases. Plant J. 46: 193-205. PubMed PMID: 16623883; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2860623.

Lherbet, C., Pojer, F., Richard, S.B., Noel, J.P. and Poulter, C.D. (2006) Absence of substrate channeling between active sites in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens IspDF and IspE Enzymes of the Methyl Erythritol Phosphate Pathway. Biochemistry 45: 3548-3553. PubMed PMID: 16533036; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2516919.

O’Maille, P.E., Chappell, J. and Noel, J.P. (2006) Biosynthetic potential of sesquiterpene synthases: Alternative products of tobacco 5-epi-aristolochene synthase. Arch. Biochem Biophys. 448: 73-82. PubMed PMID: 16375847; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2859294.

Schenk, D.J., Starks, C.M., Rising - Manna, K., Chappell, J., Noel, J.P., and Coates, R.M. (2006) Stereochemistry and deuterium isotope effects associated with the cyclization-rearrangements catalyzed by tobacco epiaristolochene and hyoscyamus premnaspirodiene synthases, and the chimeric CH4 hybrid cyclase. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 448: 31-44. Epub 2005 Oct 7. PubMed PMID: 16309622; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2883252.

Testa, C.A., Lherbet, C., Pojer, F., Noel, J.P., and Poulter, C.D. (2006) Cloning and expression of IspDF from Mesorhizobium loti. Characterization of a bifunctional protein that catalyzes non-consecutive steps in the methylerythritol phosphate pathway. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1764: 85-96. Epub 2005 Aug 31. PubMed PMID: 16203191.

Yang, Y., Yuan, J.S., Ross, J., Noel, J.P., Pichersky, E., and Chen, F. (2006) An Arabidopsis thaliana methyltransferase capable of methylating farnesoic acid. Arch Biochem. Biophys. 448: 123-132. Epub 2005 Aug 29. PubMed PMID: 16165084; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2859290.

Bomati, E.K., Austin, M.B., Bowman, M.E., Dixon, R.A., and Noel, J.P. (2005) Structural Elucidation of Chalcone Reductase and Implications for Deoxychalcone Biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 280: 30496-30503. Epub 2005 Jun 21. PubMed PMID: 15970585; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2860619.

Kuzuyama, T., Noel, J.P., and Richard, S.B. (2005) Structural basis for the promiscuous biosynthetic prenylation of aromatic natural products. Nature 435: 983-987. PubMed PMID: 15959519; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2874460.

Verdecia, M.A., Larkin, R., Ferrer, J.-L., Riek, R., Chory, J., and Noel, J.P. (2005) Structure of the Mg-Chelatase Cofactor GUN4 Reveals a Novel Hand-Shaped Fold for Porphyrin Binding. PLoS Biol. 3: 777-789. Epub 2005 Apr 26. PubMed PMID: 15884974; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1084334.

Bomati, E.K. and Noel, J.P. (2005) Structural and Kinetic Basis for Substrate Selectivity in Populus tremuloides Sinapyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase. Plant Cell 17:1598-1611. Epub 2005 Apr 13. PubMed PMID: 15829607; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1091777.

Ferrer, J.-L., Zubieta, C., Dixon, R.A., and Noel, J.P. (2005) Crystal Structures of Alfalfa Caffeoyl Coenzyme A 3-O-Methyltransferase. Plant Physiol. 137: 1009-1017. Epub 2005 Feb 25. PubMed PMID: 15734921; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1065401.

O’Maille, P.E., Chappell, J., and Noel, J.P. (2004) A single-vial analytical and quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for terpene synthases. Anal. Biochem. 335: 210-217. PubMed PMID: 15556559.

Takahashi, S., Zhao, Y., O’Maille, P.E., Greenhagen, B.T., Noel, J.P., Coates, R.M., and Chappell, J. (2005) Kinetic and Molecular Analysis of 5-Epiaristolochene-1,3-Dihydroxylase, a Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Catalyzing Successive Hydroxylations of Sesquiterpenes. J. Biol. Chem. 280: 3686-3696. Epub 2004 Nov 2. PubMed PMID: 15522862; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2859954.

Austin, M.B., Bowman, M.E., Ferrer, J.-L., Schröder, J., and Noel, J.P. (2004) An Aldol Switch Discovered in Stilbene Synthases Mediates Cyclization Specificity of Type III Polyketide Synthases. Chem. Biol. 11: 1179-1194. PubMed PMID: 15380179.

Richard, S.B., Lillo, A.M., Tetzlaff, C.N., Bowman, M.E., Noel, J.P., and Cane, D.E. (2004) Kinetic analysis of Escherichia coli 2-C-Methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate cytidyltransferase, Wild Type and Mutants, Reveals Roles of Active Site Amino Acids. Biochemistry 43: 12189-12197. PubMed PMID: 15379557.

Pott, M.B., Hippauf, F., Saschenbrecker, S., Chen, F., Ross, J., Kiefer, I., Slusarenko, A., Noel, J.P., Pichersky, E., Effmert, U., and Piechulla, B. (2004) Biochemical and Structural Characterization of Benzoid Carboxyl Methyltransferases Involved in Floral Scent Production in Stephanotis floribunda and Nicotiana suaveolens. Plant Physiol. 135: 1946-1955. Epub 2004 Aug 13. PubMed PMID: 15310828; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC520766.

Austin, M.B., Izumikawa, M., Bowman, M.E., Udwary, D., Ferrer, J.-L., Moore, B., and Noel, J.P. (2004) Crystal Structure of a Bacterial Type III Polyketide Synthase and Enzymatic Control of Reactive Polyketide Intermediates. J. Biol. Chem. 279: 45162-45174. Epub 2004 Jul 20. PubMed PMID: 15265863.

Chen, F, D’Auria, J.C., Tholl, D., Ross, J.R., Gershenzon, J., Noel, J.P., and Pichersky, E. (2003) An Arabidopsis thaliana gene for methylsalicylate biosynthesis, identified by a biochemical genomics approach, has a role in defense. Plant J. 36: 577-588.

Izumikawa, M., Shipley, P.R., Hopke, J.N., O'Hare, T., Xiang, L., Noel, J.P., and Moore, B.S. (2003) Expression and characterization of the type III polyketide synthase 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene synthase from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 30: 510-515.

Zubieta, C., Ross, J.R., Koscheski, P., Yang, Y., Pichersky, E., and Noel, J.P. (2003) Structural Basis for Substrate Recognition in the Salicylic Acid Carboxyl Methyltransferase Family. Plant Cell 15: 1704-1716. PMCID: PMC167163. ####

Sonnenburg, E.D., Bilwes, A., Hunter, T., and Noel, J.P. (2003) The Structure of the Membrane Distal Phosphatase Domain of RPTPalpha Reveals Interdomain Flexibility and an SH2 Domain Interaction Region. Biochemistry 42: 7904-7914.

Downes, M., Verdecia, M.A., Roecker, A.J., Hughes, R., Hogenesch, J.B., Kast-Woelbern, H.R., Bowman, M.E., Ferrer, J.L., Anisfeld, A.M., Edwards, P.A., Rosenfeld, J.M., Alvarez, J.G., Noel, J.P., Nicolaou, K.C., and Evans, R.M. (2003) A Chemical, genetic and structural analysis of the nuclear bile acid receptor FXR. Mol. Cell 11: 1079-1092.

Verdecia, M.A., Joazeiro, C.A., Wells, N.J., Ferrer, J.L., Bowman, M.E., Hunter, T., and Noel, J.P. (2003) Conformational flexibility underlies ubiquitin ligation mediated by the WWP1 HECT domain E3 ligase. Mol. Cell 11: 249-259.

Zubieta, C., Kota, P., Ferrer, J.-L., Dixon, R.A., and Noel, J.P. (2002) Structural Basis for the Modulation of Lignin Monomer Methylation by Caffeic Acid / 5-Hydroxyferulic Acid 3/5-O-Methyltransferase. Plant Cell 14:1265-1277. PMCID: PMC150779.

Jez, J.M., Bowman, M.E., and Noel, J.P. (2002) Role of Hydrogen Bonds in the Reaction Mechanism of Chalcone Isomerase. Biochemistry 41: 5168-5176.

Jez, J.M., Bowman, M.E., and Noel, J.P. (2002) Expanding the Biosynthetic Repertoire of Plant Type III Polyketide Synthases by Altering Starter Molecule Specificity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 5319-5324. PMCID: PMC122767.

Gang, D.R., Lavid, N., Zubieta, C., Chen, F., Beuerle, T., Lewinsohn, E., Noel, J.P., and Pichersky, E. (2002) Characterization of Phenylpropene O-Methyltransferases from Sweet Basil: Convergent Evolution within a Plant OMT Gene Family. Plant Cell 14: 505-519. PMCID: PMC152928.

Richard, S.B., Ferrer, J.-L., Bowman, M.E., Lillo, A.M., Tetzlaff, C.N., Cane, D.E., and Noel, J.P. (2002) Structure and Mechanism of 2-C-Methyl-D-Erythritol 2,4-Cyclodiphosphate Synthase. An enzyme in the mevalonate independent isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. J. Biol. Chem. 277: 8667-8672.

Lu, P.J., Zhou, X.Z., Liou, Y.C., Noel, J.P., and Lu, K.P. (2002) Critical role of WW domain phosphorylation in regulating phosphoserine binding activity and Pin1 function. J. Biol. Chem. 277: 2381-2384.

Jez, J.M. and Noel, J.P. (2002) Reaction mechanism of chalcone isomerase: pH-dependence, diffusion control, and product binding differences. J. Biol. Chem. 277: 1361-1369.

Jez, J.M., Bowman, M.E., and Noel, J.P. (2001) Structure-Guided Programming of Polyketide Chain-Length Determination in Chalcone Synthase. Biochemistry 40: 14829-14838.

Richard, S.B., Bowman, M.E., Kwiatkowski, W., Kang, I., Chow, C., Lillo, A.M., Cane, D.E., and Noel, J.P. (2001) Structure of 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methylerythritol synthetase involved in mevalonate-independent isoprenoid biosynthesis. Nat. Struct. Biol. 8: 641-647.

Zubieta, C., He, X-Z., Dixon, R.A., and Noel, J.P. (2001) Structures of two natural product methyltransferases reveal the basis for substrate specificity in plant O-methyltransferases. Nat. Struct. Biol. 8: 271-279.

Jez, J.M., Austin, M.B., Ferrer, J.-L., Bowman, M.E., Schroder, J., and Noel, J.P. (2000) Structural control of polyketide formation in plant-specific polyketide synthases. Chem. Biol. 7: 919-930.

Jez, J.M. & Noel, J.P. (2000) Mechanism of chalcone synthase: pKa of the catalytic cysteine and the role of the conserved histidine in a plant polyketide synthase. J. Biol. Chem. 275: 39640-39646.

Jez, J.M., Bowman, M.E., Dixon, R.A., and Noel, J.P. (2000) Structure and mechanism of the evolutionarily unique plant enzyme chalcone isomerase. Nat. Struct. Biol. 7: 786-791.

Verdecia, M.A., Bowman, M.E., Lu, P.L., Hunter, T., and Noel, J.P. (2000) Structural basis for phosphoserine-proline recognition by group IV WW domains. Nat. Struct. Biol. 7: 639-643.

Verdecia, M.A., Huang, H.-k., Dutil, E., Kaiser, D.A., Hunter, T., and Noel, J.P. (2000) Structure of the human anti-apoptotic protein survivin reveals a dimeric arrangement. Nat. Struct. Biol. 7: 602-608.

Kwiatkowski, W., Noel, J.P., and Choe, S. (2000) Use of CrKa radiation to enhance the signal from anomalous scatterers including sulfur. J. Appl. Cryst. 33: 876-881.

Rising, K.A., Starks, C.M., Noel, J.P., and Chappell, J. (2000) Demonstration of germacrene A as an intermediate in 5-epi-aristolochene synthase catalysis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122: 1861-1866.

Jez, J.M., Ferrer, J.-L., Bowman, M.E., Dixon, R.A., and Noel, J.P. (2000) Dissection of malonyl-CoA decarboxylation from polyketide formation in the reaction mechanism of a plant polyketide synthase. Biochemistry 39: 890-902.

Jiang, G., Hertog, J.d., Su, J., Noel, J., Sap, J., and Hunter, T. (1999) Dimerization inhibits the activity of receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase-alpha. Nature 401: 606-610.

Ferrer, J.-L., Jez, J.M., Bowman, M.E., Dixon, R.A., and Noel, J.P. (1999) Structure of Chalcone Synthase and the Molecular Basis of Plant Polyketide Biosynthesis. Nat. Struct. Biol. 6: 775-783.

Majeti, R., Bilwes, A.M., Noel, J.P., Hunter, T., and Weiss, A. (1998) Dimerization-Induced Inhibition of Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Function Through an Inhibitory Wedge. Science 279: 88-91.

Starks, C.M., Back, K., Chappell, J., and Noel, J.P. (1997) Structural Basis for Cyclic Terpene Biosynthesis by Tobacco 5-Epi-Aristolochene Synthase. Science 277: 1815-1820.

Mathis, J.R., Back, K., Starks, C., Noel J., Poulter, C.D. and Chappell, J. (1997) Pre-steady-state study of recombinant sesquiterpene cyclases. Biochemistry 36: 8340-8348.

Ranganathan, R., Lu, K.P., Hunter, T., and Noel, J.P. (1997) Structural and Functional Analysis of the Mitotic Rotamase Pin1 Suggests Substrate Recognition is Phosphorylation Dependent. Cell 89: 875-886. ####

Bilwes, A.M., Hertog, J.d., Hunter, T., and Noel, J.P. (1996) Structural basis for inhibition of receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha by dimerization. Nature 382:555-559.

Sondek, J., Lambright, D.G., Noel, J.P., Hamm, H.E., & Sigler, P.B. (1994) The GTPase mechanism of G proteins from the 1.7 A crystal structure of transducin a GDP AlF4-. Nature 372: 276-279.

Lambright, D.G., Noel, J.P., Hamm, H.E., and Sigler, P.B. (1994) Structural determinants for activation of the a subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein. Nature 369: 621-628.

Noel, J.P., Hamm, H.E., and Sigler, P.B. (1993) The 2.2Å crystal structure of transducin-a complexed with GTPgS. Nature 366: 654-663.

Dupureur, C.M., Yu, B.-Z., Jain, M.K., Noel, J.P., Deng, T., Li, Y., Byeon, I.L., and Tsai, M.-D. (1992) Phospholipase A2 Engineering. Structural and Functional Roles of Highly Conserved Active Site Residues Tyrosine-52 and Tyrosine-73. Biochemistry 31: 6402-6413.

Noel, J.P., Bingman, C.A., Deng, T., Dupureur, C.M., Hamilton, K.J., Jiang, R.-T., Kwak, J.-G., Sekharudu, C., Sundaralingam, M., and Tsai, M.-D. (1991) Phospholipase A2 Engineering. X-ray Structural and Functional Evidence for the Interaction of Lysine-56 with Substrates. Biochemistry 30: 11801-11811.

Dupureur, C.M., Deng, T., Kwak, J.-G., Noel, J., and Tsai, M.-D. (1990) Phospholipase A2 engineering 4. Can the active site aspartate function alone? J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112: 7074-7076.

Noel, J.P., Deng, T., Hamilton, K.J., and Tsai, M.-D. (1990) Phospholipase A2 Engineering. 3. Replacement of Lysine-56 by Neutral Residues Improves Catalytic Efficiency Significantly, Alters Substrate Specificity, and Clarifies the Mechanism of Interfacial Recognition. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112: 3704-3706.

Deng, T., Noel, J.P., and Tsai, M.-D. (1990) A novel expression vector for high - level synthesis and secretion of foreign proteins in E. coli .Gene93: 229-234.

Noel, J.P. and Tsai, M.-D. (1989) Phospholipase A2 Engineering: Design, Synthesis, and Expression of a Gene for Bovine (pro)Phospholipase A2. J. Cell. Biochem. 40: 309-320.

Lin, G., Noel, J., Loffredo, W., Sable, H. and Tsai, M-D. (1988) Use of short chain cyclopentano-phosphatidyl cholines to probe the mode of activation of phospholipase A2 from bovine pancreas and bee venom. J. Biol. Chem. 263: 13208-13214.

Rosario-Jansen, T., Pownall, J.P., Noel, J. and Tsai, M-D. (1987) Phospholipids chiral at phosphorus. Stereochemical comparison of phospholipase A2, lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase, and platelet activating factor. Phosph. Sulf. 30: 601-604.

Review Articles, Book Chapters, Commentaries and Perspectives

Weng, J.-K. & Noel, J.P. (2012) Structure-Function Analyses of Plant Type III Polyketide Synthases. Methods Enzymol. 515: 317-335. PubMed PMID: 22999180.

Liscombe, D.K., Louie, G.V. & Noel, J.P. (2012) Architectures, Mechanisms and Molecular Evolution of Natural Product Methyltransferases. Nat. Prod. Rep. 29: 1238-1250. Epub 2012 Aug 1. PubMed PMID: 22850796.

Weng, J.-K., Philippe, R.N. and Noel, J.P. (2012) The rise of chemodiversity in plants. Science 336: 1667-1670. PubMed PMID: 22745420.

Noel, J.P. (2010) Chemical biology: Synthetic metabolism goes green. Nature. 468: 380-381. PubMed PMID: 21085165.

Austin, M.B., O'Maille, P.E. and Noel, J.P. (2008) Evolving biosynthetic tangos negotiate mechanistic landscapes. Nat. Chem. Biol. 4: 217-222. PubMed PMID: 18347585; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2703434.

Tello, M., Kuzuyama, T., Heide, L., Noel, J.P. and Richard, S. (2008) The ABBA Family of Aromatic Prenyltransferases: Broadening Natural Product Diversity. Cell Mol. Life Sci. 65: 1549-1463. Review. PubMed PMID: 18322648; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2861910.

Ferrer, J.-L., Austin, M.B., Stewart Jr., C. and Noel, J.P. (2008) Structure and function of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 46: 356-370. Epub 2007 Dec 31. PubMed PMID: 18272377; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2860624.

Noel, J.P. (2007) Digging for answers, smelling a hint of success and tasting triumph. Nat. Chem. Biol. 3: 690-691. PubMed PMID: 17948014; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2859038.

Liu, C.-J., Wang, C., Noel, J.P. and Dixon, R.A. (2007) Biochemical and structural bases for (iso)flavonoid biosynthetic diversity in Biotechnology and Sustainable Agriculture 2006 and Beyond. (eds. Xu, Z., Li, J., Xue, Y. and Yang, W.) pp. 231-234 (Springer-Verlag, Netherlands).

Austin, M.B. and Noel, J.P. (2007) Mechanisms of Type III Polyketide Functional Diversity: From Steric Modulation to the Reaction Partitioning Model in ACS Symposium Series 955, Polyketides: Biosynthesis, Biological Activities, and Genetic Engineering. (eds. Rimando, A. M. & Baerson, S. R.) pp. 185-197 (American Chemical Society, Washington DC).

Etzkorn, F.A., Noel, J.P., Zhang, Y. and Wang, X.J. (2006) Pin1: Inhibitors and Mechanism. In Understanding Biology Using Peptides, Proc. 19th Am. Pept. Symp. (Blondelle, S. E., Ed.) Springer, Inc., San Diego, 759-762.

Liu, C.-J. and Noel, J.P. (2006) Flavonoids: Recent Advances in Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Pharmaceutical Applications and Metabolic Engineering. In Plant Genetic Engineering, Vol. 7: Metabolic Engineering and Molecular Farming. (Jaiwal, P.K., Ed.) Stadium Press, Houston, 225-259.

Pichersky, E., Noel, J.P., and Dudareva, N. (2006) Biosynthesis of Plant Volatiles: Nature's Diversity and Ingenuity. Science 311: 808-811. Review. PubMed PMID: 16469917; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2861909.

Effmert, U., Saschenbrecker, S., Ross, J., Negre, F., Fraser, C.M., Noel, J.P., Dudareva, N., and Piechulla, B. (2005) Floral benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases: From in vitro to in planta function. Phytochemistry 66: 1211-1230. Review. PubMed PMID: 15946712; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2864587.

Noel, J.P., Austin, M.B., and Bomati, E.K. (2005) Structure-function relationships in plant phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 8: 249-253. Review. PubMed PMID: 15860421; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2861907.

Dutil-Sonnenburg, E., Hunter, T., and Noel, J.P. (2003) Regulating Receptor PTP Activity. Handbook of Cell Signaling, Chapter 113. 1: 685-688.

Noel, J.P., Dixon, R.A., Pichersky, E., Zubieta, C., and Ferrer, J.-L. (2003) Structural, Functional, and Evolutionary Basis for Methylation of Plant Small Molecules. Rec. Adv. Phytochem. 37: 37-58.

Austin, M.B. and Noel, J.P. (2003) The Chalcone Synthase Superfamily of Type III Polyketide Synthases. Nat. Prod. Rep. 20: 79-110.

Beachy, R., Bennetzen, J.L., Chassy, B.M., Chrispeels, M., Chory, J., Ecker, J.R., Noel, J.P., Kay, S.A., Dean, C., Lamb, C., Jones, J., Santerre, C.R., Schroeder, J.I., Umen, J., Yanofsky, M., Wessler, S., Zhao, Y., and Parrott, W. (2002) Divergent perspectives on GM food. Nat. Biotechnol. 20: 1195-1196.

Moore, B.S., Hertweck, C., Hopke, J.N., Izumikawa, M., Kalaitzis, J.A., Nilsen, G., O’Hare, T., Piel, J., Shipley, P.R., Xiang, L., Austin, M.B., and Noel, J.P. (2002) Plant-like biosynthetic pathways in bacteria: from benzoic acid to chalcone. J. Nat. Prod. 65: 1956-1962.

Noel, J.P., Jez, J.M., Austin, M.B., Bowman, M.E., and Ferrer, J.-L. (2002) Structurally Guided Alteration of Biosynthesis in Plant Type III Polyketide Synthases. Rec. Adv. Phytochem. 36: 197-222.

Dixon, R., Chen, F., He, X.-Z., Noel, J.P., and Zubieta, C. (2001) Properties and Metabolic Engineering of Alfalfa Phenylpropanoid Pathway O-Methyltransferases. Rec. Adv. Phytochem. 35: 131-154.

Jez, J.M., Ferrer, J.L., Bowman, M.E., Austin, M.B., Schroder, J., Dixon, R.A., and Noel, J.P. (2001) Structure and mechanism of chalcone synthase-like polyketide synthases. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 27: 393-398.

Jez, J.M. and Noel, J.P. (2000) A kaleidoscope of carotenoids. Nat. Biotechnol. 18: 825-826.

Noel, J.P. (1997) Turning off the Ras switch with the flick of a finger. Nat. Struct. Biol. 4: 677-680.

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Awards and Honors

  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator, 2005
  • National Institutes of Heath Postdoctoral Fellow, 1993-1994
  • National Science Foundation Chemistry Postdoctoral Fellow, 1990-1992
  • Monsanto Biotechnology Fellow, 1989-1990
  • Presidential Fellow, 1988-1989
  • University Fellow, The Ohio State University, 1985-1986
  • Sohio and Philips Petroleum Company Fellow, 1985

Discovery of plant proteins may boost agricultural yields and biofuel production

May 13, 2012

Scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies and Iowa State University scored a rare scientific hat trick, identifying three related proteins in thale cress plants (Arabidopsis thaliana) that regulate the metabolism of fatty acids, chemical components of all cell membranes and vegetable oils. They dubbed these fatty-acid binding proteins FAP1, FAP2 and FAP3. Read more>>

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